The national immunisation programme using the bivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) was introduced in England in September 2008. The authors collected residual vulva-vaginal swab specimens from 16 to 24-year-old women attending for chlamydia screening between 2010 and 2016 and tested them for HPV DNA. They completed testing for 15,459 specimens. The authors found that the prevalence of HPV16/18 decreased between 2010/2011 and 2016 from 8.2% to 1.6% in 16-18 year olds, and from 14.0% to 1.6% in 19-21 year olds. Declines were also seen for HPV31/33/45 (6.5% to 0.6% for 16-18 year olds, and 8.6% to 2.6% for 19-21 year olds). This translates to a vaccine effectiveness for HPV16/18 of 82.0% (95%CI 60.6-91.8%) and for HPV31/33/45 of 48.7% (95%CI 20.8-66.8%). Therefore, 8 years after the introduction of the national HPV vaccination programme, there have been significant declines in HPV16/18 and HPV31/33/45.
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