The monovalent rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix, was introduced in Kenya in July 2014 and is recommended for infants at ages 6 and 10 weeks. The authors conducted hospital-based surveillance in two population-based sites to assess the impact of the vaccine on the incidence of rotavirus-associated hospitalisations (RVH). They examined acute diarrhoea hospitalisations among children aged <5 years. Between 2010 and 2017, there were 1513 and 1652 diarrhoea hospitalisations in Kilifi and Siaya, respectively. Among those tested for rotavirus, 28% and 23% were positive. There was a 57% reduction in RVH observed in the first year post-vaccine introduction in Kilifi and a 59% reduction in Siaya. In the second year, RVH decreased further at both sites; 80% reduction in Kilifi and 82% reduction in Siaya, with this reduction being sustained at both sites into the third year. Therefore a substantial reduction of RVH and all-cause diarrhoea was seen in two demographic surveillance sites in Kenya within 3 years of vaccine introduction.
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