Population-level impact of introduction of rotavirus vaccination in the US

December 27, 2018

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While the incidence of rotavirus disease has declined among children <5 years of age since the introduction of the vaccine in 2006, population-level impacts in the US have not yet been fully identified. The authors used data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Database to conduct a time-series analysis of monthly hospital discharges across age groups for acute gastroenteritis and rotavirus from 2000-2013. They found that following vaccine introduction, there was a decrease in rotavirus hospitalisations, with a shift towards biennial patterns across all ages. The 0-4 year old age group experienced the largest decrease in rotavirus hospitalisations (risk ratio [RR] 0.14, 95%CI 0.09-0.23). The 5-19 and 20-59 year old age groups also experienced significant declines in rotavirus hospitalisation rates overall. Patients aged 60 years or older experienced the smallest change in rotavirus hospitalisation rates overall, with significant reductions only seen in even post-vaccine years compared to pre-vaccine years (RR 0.51, 95%CI 0.39-0.66). Therefore there were indirect impacts of infant rotavirus vaccination by causing the emergence of biennial patterns in rotavirus hospitalisations that extend to all age groups ineligible for vaccination.

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Baker JM, Tate JE, Steiner CA, Haber MJ, Parashar UD, et al. ISSN: Clin Infect Dis; doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy580


Added: December 27, 2018